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The adoption of ambitious Community Policing initiatives in Rio de Janeiro and Salvador over the last decade inspired hope among many police reformers that a new, more democratic paradigm of state-society relations might finally emerge in Brazil. Such was the allure of Community Policing (CP), a citizen-oriented policing philosophy that had been embraced in much of the Global North more than a decade earlier, and was now becoming entrenched in Latin America. As the form of Community Policing was modified to fit the sociopolitical context of the Brazilian slum, however, it took on characteristics more similar to counterinsurgency and peace keeping. As in peace keeping, the new initiatives led to immediate and dramatic reduction in lethal violence by deterring armed confrontation between rival gangs and between gangs and the police. Like counterinsurgency, however, their heavy-handed tactics are the source of deep tensions between the police and community members. Consequently, both its positive impact and its limitations have been far more pronounced than CP programs elsewhere. Ultimately, CP in Brazil suffers from an even greater flaw. Unable to replace the authority of locally embedded drug gangs, the police have largely resorted to sharing authority with them as a condition of keeping the peace.
One year after the peace accord between the Colombian government of Juan Manuel Santos and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, signed on November 24, 2016, its implementation is making no headway. This article examines the main obstacles to the materialization of the peace accord, from its difficult incorporation in Colombian law, to concrete problems identified by peasant organizations and NGOs that defend the victims of the conflict. Issues of power-sharing, security and land are at the core of present difficulties.
Un an après la signature d’un accord de paix le 24 novembre 2016 entre le gouvernement colombien de Juan Manuel Santos et les Forces Armées Révolutionnaires de Colombie (FARC), sa mise en place piétine. Cette analyse propose de revenir sur les principaux enjeux de la mise en œuvre de l’accord en Colombie. Elle s’arrêtera dans un premier temps sur les difficultés d’adaptation de celui-ci au sein du droit colombien, puis mettra en lumière les obstacles concrets pointés du doigt par les organisations paysannes et les associations de défense des victimes du conflit. Les enjeux politiques, sécuritaires et fonciers sont centraux pour comprendre le contexte actuel.
Is Colombia Finally Heading Toward a Peace Agreement? Mathilde Allain, interview with Jacobo Grajales
On October 2nd, 2016, the Colombian people voted “No” in the referendum to ratify the peace agreement between the State and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC, created in 1964), which had been signed in an atmosphere of great optimism on the 26th September in Cartagena.
Les Colombiens ont répondu « non » le 2 octobre 2016 au référendum ratifiant l’accord de paix entre l’État et la guérilla des Forces armées révolutionnaires de Colombie (FARC, créées en 1964), pourtant signé dans l’allégresse le 26 septembre dernier à Carthagène.